HomeBusinessChina’s Transnational Repression and Modern Slavery in Italy

China’s Transnational Repression and Modern Slavery in Italy

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Santo Beijing is residence to hundreds of fast-fashion factories, the place on daily basis, hundreds of undocumented migrants work 12 hours a day, seven days every week, in confined circumstances for his or her overlords with the only goal of manufacturing garments that can finally be thrown away. It is a cash laundering, tax evasion haven inside a 100 billion euro business located within the coronary heart of Tuscany, Italy.

This is the darkish facet of Prato’s Chinatown. 


Pre-pandemic, China had its sights on Italy as a possible companion in its controversial Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). The Chinese and Italian leaders, Xi Jinping and Giuseppe Conte, signed an Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in March 2019 on furthering China’s bold BRI into Europe by way of Italy. Greece and Italy had been the one two European international locations to signal the settlement, a lot to the priority of different European and Atlantic companions. 

Flash ahead a 12 months, and Italy was coping with a catastrophic wave of COVID-19, which noticed the largest loss of life toll within the nation since World War II. Some observers questioned whether or not the Chinese-operated textile factories within the Tuscany area triggered the devastating outbreak.

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The China-Italy entrepreneurial partnership got here beneath rising suspicion, and a change in authorities that introduced Mario Draghi to the prime ministership noticed steps to derail the MoU and revert to Italy’s conventional transatlantic partnerships. 

The newly elected Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni’s cupboard seems to be following this pattern of formal push-backs towards China; nonetheless, it’s greater than doubtless that Italy will nonetheless renew the MoU this 12 months.  It is unclear what number of agreements there are beneath the MoU framework or their actual content material. 

China-Italy Historical Ties 

Since former Prime Minister Romano Prodi organized a commerce mission to China in 1997, all administrations, besides Silvo Berlusconi’s, have proven a specific curiosity in sustaining good commerce relations with China.

When Chinese transport firm COSCO took management of Greece’s Piraeus terminals in 2016 and Greece joined the BRI in 2018, it established a set of just about compulsory selections, an aspirational pathway towards progress, for international locations in determined financial woe.

According to a 2016 University of Bologna research on the impression of the “New Silk Road” contained in the EU market, 13 % of Chinese commerce handed via Greece. The research advised that the shift in commerce via Greece might improve much more if Piraeus was rail-linked to Central Europe. One of the objectives of the Italian authorities was to mitigate such a risk via gentle energy that leveraged Italian ports already related to Central Europe. It was in that spirit that Italy joined the BRI in 2019. 

At the identical time, leaders within the EU and the United States nervous about having a G-7 nation be part of the BRI. Undoubtedly, China is right now’s primary U.S. rival, and an enormous geopolitical mission resembling becoming a member of the BRI might put Italy’s nationwide safety in danger. In addition, there was an absence of transparency and correct session on the BRI by each Chinese and Italian counterparts, which can result in a complete host of exploitative issues

The EU and the U.S. have expressed considerations that the BRI in Italy might result in a “debt trap,” resembling that witnessed in creating international locations like Sri Lanka. Struggling to pay money owed, some BRI participant international locations have been compelled by circumstances to concede energy over ports and different infrastructure to Chinese pursuits.

Moreover, China analysts assume that the BRI might result in elevated competitors for EU corporations and potential misplaced jobs and market share. Other points raised are the dearth of compliance with these initiatives in assembly strict EU requirements and laws, most significantly, adhering to employees’ rights.

The potential implications of the BRI will even impression the EU member states’ democracy and their independence from any type of overseas affect.

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Chinese residents strolling the streets of Prato’s Chinatown. Photo: Hugh Bohane.

China and Italy’s Textiles Cooperation Today

Known because the Manchester of Italy, Prato has been one of many nation’s main manufacturing hubs because the Nineteen Sixties financial growth in Italy and has performed a key position in exporting the Italian style business worldwide. Located simply 20 kilometers from Florence, Prato’s distinguished textile business has lengthy been a most popular vacation spot for Italian home employees. 

In 2019, pre-pandemic, the Italian Textile and Fashion Federation — Sistema Moda Italia (SMI) — estimated that Italy’s textile and style business was value roughly 56 billion euros in whole. Today, the Italian industrial affiliation Confindustria Moda expects the business to be value roughly 107 billion euros.

In the final century, Prato’s inhabitants grew from 50,000 in 1901 to 180,000 in 2001. At the identical time, migration attracted at the least 30,000 abroad Chinese residents (primarily from Zhejiang and Fujian provinces); nonetheless, some authorities counsel it’s double or 3 times increased when contemplating the variety of undocumented immigrants. Italian police advised The Diplomat that they estimate that there are round 50, 000 undocumented employees in Prato.

In 2009 Dongke Mo from the Italian Chinese Association in Prato was quoted as saying, “In America, you absorb immigrants. In Italy, the Chinese are looked on as labor.”

Integration of the Chinese group into Italy remains to be fraught, with a mess of issues right now. In Prato, The Diplomat spoke with Captain Lorenzo Marzioli on the Finance Police’s headquarters. “The Chinese community in Prato simply wants to make money and establish itself in the global market. There are now Chinese accountants and notaries working for Chinese companies inside Italy,” mentioned Marzioli.

The “Made in Italy” label is one thing Chinese entrepreneurs and their shoppers extremely worth.

The within a Chinese workshop in Prato. Photo: Hugh Bohane.

Counterfeiting, Managed by Supranational Organized Crime

After Milan, Prato has the second highest degree of cash laundering in Italy. The position of organized crime has led to a qualitative leap within the manufacturing of counterfeit items by transnational felony organizations, which have been engaged on a world scale to counterfeit market items and maximize financial returns.

Collusion between Italian and Chinese organized crime resembling counterfeiting luxurious manufacturers like Gucci, Fendi, Prada, and Dolce & Gabbana, was highlighted within the 2018 arrest of Chinese nationwide Zhang Naizhong in Italy. 

“The role of the Guardia di Finanza (Italian finance police) is to study these [criminal] phenomena and to curb them,” Marzioli mentioned. 

The member states of the EU that determined to speak in confidence to the markets of China allowed the entry of a variety of merchandise, together with not real ones, which in flip can result in cash laundering. It’s one thing the authorities discover troublesome to trace.

According to Marzioli, “It is a highly structured organized crime system of money laundering aimed to evade EU taxes.” 

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“The difficulty lies in the nature of the national customs system, which, although systematized, does not yet function as a perfectly working machine,” he mentioned.  

Underwear produced in Prato hangs on a rack. Photo: Leonardo Delfanti.

When items enter the EU, solely import customs duties should be paid. At that point, the product’s circulation is beneath suspension of Value Added Taxes (VAT); nonetheless, it should be paid later within the nation of vacation spot. By simulating the acquisition immediately from a producer in China, nothing is definitely transformed into actual funds. This is a technique that organized crime teams conduct cash laundering.

The uncooked supplies ought to arrive in Prato’s malls. Nevertheless, “often and willingly, we have reverse billings that bring back funds to China and appear as though they come as legitimate transfers,” Marzioli defined. Inevitably, this occurs in different elements of Europe, “for example, in Paris too,” he added. 

A sticker labeled ‘Prato’ on a road pole in Chinatown. Photo: Hugh Bohane.

The Diplomat’s On-the-Ground Investigation in Prato

Two worldwide journalists, one from Italy and the opposite from Australia, not too long ago investigated the present scenario on the bottom in Prato’s Chinatown, higher often known as Santo Beijing. 

While strolling within the metropolis middle, they approached a Pakistani man, Ali*, in his early 30s, who wished to stay nameless. He mentioned he works in a Chinese textile manufacturing unit in Prato, seven days every week, 12 hours per day. He will get paid 1,200 euros a month, whereas he has to pay 200 euros month-to-month lease. There are not any sick days. If he misses a day, 50 euros are deducted from his wage.

He mentioned that Chinese staff are working alongside him. They are paid 1,700 euros month-to-month and obtain free lodging, meals, and cigarettes. 

Before dusk, Ali knocks on the manufacturing unit door after which begins working in silence. The bosses don’t speak to him. He is forbidden from even going to the bathroom throughout work hours. 

He referred to himself as a contemporary slave. “I have no dignity at all.”

But he accepts it, saying that that is what Allah has chosen for him, so it should be this manner.

We requested him a number of instances whether or not he wished to share his story beneath his actual title on report, however he mentioned it was not protected. He mentioned no quantity of media protection might make a distinction, and he thinks the mindset of his Chinese “laoban” (the Mandarin time period for “boss”) received’t change. 

Migrants sitting in entrance of Prato’s dome. Photo: Leonardo Delfanti.

Ali is undocumented. Chinese employers tend to rent solely undocumented employees as a strategy to preserve them in “debt bondage.” As a part of their “deal,” Ali thinks that his boss will present him with the required paperwork later this 12 months. 

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We contacted SI Cobas an Italian working union, a number of instances for touch upon this challenge, however obtained no response. 

In current years, police have raided lots of of crowded workshops the place Chinese reside, work, and sleep. The majority of the employees earn far under the usual wage and reside in confined areas, but they produce items which can be reportedly offered in high-end designer outlets. 

There have been a number of fires inside Chinese workshops in Prato, with two blazes occurring final 12 months alone. One was attributable to arsonists again in September 2022; eight workshops housing 15 corporations had been destroyed.

While in Santo Beijing, we met just a few individuals of Chinese heritage ingesting beer on a bench on Pistoiese road. They advised us that they had been residing in Italy for 20 years, which was echoed by many Chinese individuals we spoke to. “I never saw Brunelleschi’s Dome,” one of many males mentioned, referring to the truth that he had by no means been to the middle of Florence, solely 20 kilometers from Prato.

“Italy is no good, there is no work, there is no money here… Germany is better,” mentioned one middle-aged Chinese man from Xiamen.

Chinese residents have their hotpot eating places, supermarkets, education, dentistries, medical facilities, authorized companies, and CCTV cameras, all throughout the bubble of Prato. So few residents would ever really feel the necessity to go away Chinatown. 

Embedded with the Italian monetary police in Macrolotto. Photo: Leonardo Delfanti.

Embedded with the Italian Finance Police

The Diplomat additionally spent a day embedded with the Italian Finance Police in Prato.

We visited Macrolotto 1, escorted by two patrol vehicles. The police, armed with machine weapons, confirmed us the enormity of the world occupied by Chinese-run fast-fashion companies. According to a 2017 Chamber of Commerce report, the Chinese personal 5,676 textile corporations in Prato. 

The Italian police appeared considerably apprehensive and wished us to maintain a protected distance from the Chinese-run workshops whereas we took pictures. 

Security can be a excessive precedence amongst the Chinese inside Prato. “There have been recent Italian retaliatory measures against the Chinese community,” an unnamed police officer advised us. 

Macrolotto 1 is an industrial space occupied by Chinese fast-fashion companies. Since the start of Chinese migration, there was an ongoing relationship between Italian and Chinese entrepreneurs. “For example, some leading [Italian] brands ask Chinese entrepreneurs to work for them,” mentioned the police. Although the pandemic has prompted a slowdown in manufacturing, Prato-made fast-fashion items are offered throughout Europe. 

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One of the primary modifications within the post-pandemic fast-fashion period is with the manufacturing line. Finding a warehouse stuffed with unlawful items is troublesome. To improve income and keep away from controls, as soon as a truck stuffed with uncooked supplies arrives in Prato, it solely takes a few working nights to assemble the ultimate product and ship it out.

“If rules were to be respected, the payment of allowances, the maturation of compulsory rest periods… Things incompatible with the production methods of fast fashion would be addressed,” Captain Marzioli emphasised. 

Through financial controls, the finance police get an index of the place to begin; via their investigations, they probe and monitor manufacturing actions. The officers used an Italian metaphor, “Our territory is an ocean to be fished,” that means the territory is an ocean the place they discover the little fish first, which then leads them to the massive fish. 

“When we operate in Prato, even in the ordinary controls of the territory, that is, with the patrol, even at a simple census, there are plenty of people hiding in the shadows,” Marzioli mentioned. This proof, along with the excessive presence of cast residency papers, makes it clear to him “that there are symptoms of potential human trafficking being conducted here.”

Chinese entrepreneurs are only one group making the most of the system. In 2020, after three years, the finance police accomplished an investigation beneath the code title “Golden Wood,” which uncovered the laundering of roughly 39 million euros involving about 33 enterprises related to the Cosa Nostra (an Italian organized crime group).  

Between 2016 and 2019, Italy and China used to carry joint police patrols for tourism functions and extra minor points, however the patrols had been suspended through the pandemic.

In the latter a part of 2022, human rights NGO Safeguard Defenders reported the presence of unlawful Chinese police stations in Prato, Milan, Rome, and Florence headed by the authorities in Fuzhou province, China.

In their “Patrol and Persuade” report, Italy stands out as a “pilot” mission the place Chinese authorities use threats, intimidation, harassment, and even kidnappings towards targets overseas to “persuade them to return” residence. As open supply proof from PRC authorities or its state/get together media repeatedly iterates, bilateral police cooperation agreements search to co-opt political, media, and enterprise figures to align insurance policies and narratives with the CCP’s preferences.

We requested the finance police again in August 2022 whether or not they had any prior information about secret Chinese police stations in Prato. They mentioned they didn’t and couldn’t share additional particulars. 

The Diplomat contacted Laura Harth, marketing campaign director at Safeguard Defenders, to get her line on the general scenario. For her, the Italian police not figuring out about secret Chinese police stations seems “highly unlikely.”

“Open source evidence shows how Italian police officials partook in the ‘unveiling’ of a similar center in Rome in 2018. Additionally, some comments made by authorities following the release of our investigations are contradictory when they state they were ‘monitoring’ the situation. 

This implies they were aware of their existence. Counter to the vast majority of democratic allies, Italy has still not clearly stated that it considers these centers illegal and a violation of territorial sovereignty,” she mentioned.

In phrases of the BRI, Harth thinks that Italy renewing its settlement with China is a danger: “We urgently need a comprehensive review of existing agreements across departments, evaluate their appropriateness today and repercussions, and come up with an informed and coordinated approach to bolster Italy’s future resilience and safeguard national security.”

“I continue to hope Italy’s government will move beyond the easy symbolic act to appease allied nations and take the necessary – and sometimes difficult – steps to recognize and address the multiple threats to its national security and interests.”

Among the Italian enterprise group, affect and coercion are exercised on policymakers. “Italy is far less dependent on the Chinese market than it sometimes seems to think itself,” she mentioned, however it’s not an Italy-specific challenge. All democratic nations must confront this collectively to construct clear and resilient markets. 

China  and different authoritarian actors don’t abide by the worldwide rules-based order and are engaged in hybrid warfare aimed toward weakening democracies and dividing democratic alliances. In this hybrid warfare, they use all instruments at their disposal, together with the affect and interference operations resembling with the “overseas police service centers,” co-option and coercion of enterprise communities, media manipulation and disinformation campaigns, and so forth. 

“Unless we resolutely recognize and address these issues in a whole-of-society approach and coordination with allied nations, the risks (and difficulties to address them down the line) will continue to increase.”  


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*names have been modified to guard individuals’s identities.

This investigation was sponsored by Free Press Unlimited and Transitions via a European Union fund.

Source web site: thediplomat.com

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